To Be Continued.
Gradually I learned to be indifferent to myself and my deficiencies; I came to center my attention increasingly upon external objects: the state of the world, various branches of knowledge, individuals for whom I felt affection.
Autotelic people can enjoy situtaions that ordinary persons would find unbearable.
While you're in the flow, self-consciousness disappears and you lose the sense of time, you are unaware of any stress or anxiety, and the experience itself fills you with delight.
If you're not busy being born, you're busy dying.
Almost everyone can experience flow through different activities, I, for instance, enter the flow most readily when I'm solving a programming problem. Dancing, rock climbing, chess, making music, reading an engaging book, etc. are some other examples of flow activities.
The Elements of Flow
1. A vivid Goal or Challenge.
2. Feedback and Measuring.
3. Matching the Challenge with Skills.
The best moments in our lives are not the passive, receptive, relaxing times... The best moments usually occur if a person's body or mind is stretched to its limit in voluntary effort to accomplish something difficult and worthwhile.
Behaviour of autotelic people:
1. They pay close attention to the most minute details of their environment, discover in it hidden opportunities for action that matches their capabilities given the situation and circumstances.
2. They set goals appropriate to their precarious situation, and closely monitor progress through the feedback they received.
3. Whenever they reach their goal, they up the ante and set increasingly complex challenges for themselves.
Most important trait of survivors is a "nonself-conscious individualism," or a strongly directed purpose that is not self-seeking. People who have that quality are bent on doing their best in all circumstances, yet they are not concerned primarily with advancing their own interests. Because thtey are intrinsically motivated in their actions, they are not easily distrubed by external threats, With enough psychic energy free to observe and analyze their surroundings objectively, they have a better chance of discovering in them new opportunities for action.
Gamification is the high fructose corn syrup of engagement.
All of the really tough problems we're facing now are planetary problems. There's real value in being pushed toward global awareness and looking long-term. That's one of the things taht I find very useful about games.... I think these are the timelines we need to be looking at- the one-hundred- or two-hundred-year horizons. Because most of the really bad stuff that's happening right now is the result of very short-term thinking.
Superempowered hopeful individuals(SEHI)
Someone who feels not just optimistic about the future, but also personally capable of changing the world for the better. They get their confidence from network technologies that amplify and aggregate individual ability to impact the common good.
SEHI don't wait around for the world to save itself. Thy invent and spread their own humanitarian missions. More importantly, they are "able to do so with smaller numbers, greater speed, and a far larger impact" than a slow-moving, risk-averse organization. Of course, in an ideal world, SEHIs would be able to band together and scale up their efforts-to avoid making redundant efforts, to learn from each other's mistaks, to amplify each other's abilities to make a difference. Disorganized SEHIs would have a hard time making significant strides.
But organized SEHIs-well, they could change everything.
Ten years is a good, useful horizon-distant enough to expect real changes, close enough to feel within our grasp.
To build over or upon another structure; to erect upon a foundation.
We can create any future we can imagine.
A superpower is not just a new skill. It's a skill that so far surpasses any previously demosstrated skill, and it efficiently changes our notion of what is humanly possible.
1. an unexpected victory from an underdog.
2. something fantastic that has worked out unbelievably well.
3. the greatest possible way for man to succeed at anything.
4. an expression of happiness and awe at a highly favorable event that has taken place: "Alright!Epic win!"
What the world needs now are more epic win: opportunities for ordinary people to do extraordinary things-like change or save someone's life-every day.
They all help us revise our notion of what consitutes a realistic best-case-scenario outcome. Whatever we thought the best possible result could reasonably be before, after an epic win we've set a new product: We can do more. It can get better.
Epic wins help turn a one-off effort into passionate long-term participation.
Epic wins abound in gamer circles, for two reasons. First, in the face of ridiculous challenge, long odds, or great uncertainty, gamers cultivate extrame optimism. They have perfect confidence that even if success isn't probable, it's at least possible. So gamers' efforts to achieve an epic win never feel pointless or hopeless. Second, gamers aren't afraid to fail. Failing in a good game is at the very least fun and interesting; it can also be instructive and even empowering.
Extreme optimism and fun failure mean that gamers are more likely to put themselves in situations where epic can happen-situations where we take up unlikely missions and suprise ourselves with new awe-inspiring positive outcomes.
Epic wins, when connected to real-world causes, help us discover an ability to contribute to the common good that we didn't know we had. They help us upset other people's expectations of what is possible for ordinary people to accomplish in their spare time. And they help us set goals that would have seemed ludicrous-impossible-before we had so many volunteers so well equipped to help each other, and so effectively mobilized.
You can radically alter the nature of a game by changing the number of people playing it.
Any time that you're trying to get people to give you stuff, to do stuff for you, the most important thing is that what they're doing is having an effect. If you're not giving people the "I rock" vibe, you're not getting people to stick around.
The rock vibe is another way of talking about classic game rewards, such as having a clear sense of purpose, making an obvious impact, making continuous progress, enjoying a good chance of success, and experiencing plenty of fiero moments.
Gamers are an extremely valuable- and largely untapped-source of participation bandwidth. Whoever figures out how to effectively engage them first for real work is going to reap enormous benefits.
Crowdsourcing projects- if they have any hope of capturing enough participation bandwith to achieve truly ambitious goals-must be intentionally designed to offer the same kinds of intrinsic rewards we get from good games. Incresingly, I'm convinced that this is the only way to dramtically increase our total available participation bandwith. If everyone spent as much time actively engaged in good, hard work as gamers do, we wouldn't be competing for scarce crowd resources. We'd have massively more mental hours to pour into important collective efforts.
Synchronizing physical behavior to music we like is one of the most reliable - not to mention the safest - ways to induce the form of extreme happiness as euphoria.
Sharing the same space for even just a few minutes a day with kind and friendly strangers makes us more optimistic, improves our self-esteem, makes us feel safer and more connected to our environment, and generally helps us enjoy our lives more. And if we return the favor, we benefit as well: when we give to others, or act cooperatively, the reward centers of brain light up.
Hapiness might be our primary goal, we can't pursuit of those goals, we capture happiness as a kind of by-product. He called this approaching happiness "side-ways, like a crab." We can't let it know we're coming. We just kind of sneak up on it from the side.
Community feels good. It felels like belonging, fitting in, and actively caring about something together. Community typically arises when a group of people who have a common interest start to interact with each other in order to further that interest. It requires positive participation from everyone in the group.
In order to turn a group of strangers into a community, you have to follow two basic steps: first, cultivate a shared interest among strangers, and, second, give them the opportunity and means to interact with each other around that interest.
Does a game community among strangers last? Not always. Sometimes it lasts only as long as the game itself. The players might never see or talk to each other again. And that's perfectly okay. We often tend to think of communities as best when they're long-term and stable, and certainly the strength of a community can grow over time. But communities can also confer real benefits even when they last for mere days, hours, or even minutes.
Communitas is a powerful sense of togetherness, solidarity, and social connection. And it protects against loneliness and alienation.
We gain confidence that we can connect with others when we want to, and when we need to.
If you cannot measure it, you cannot improve it.
Real-time data and quantitative benchmarks are the reason why gamers get consistently better at virtually any game they play: their performance is consistently measured and reflected back to them, with advancing progress bars, points, levels, and achievements. It's easy for players to see exactly how and when they're making progress. This kind of instantaneous, positive feedback drives players to try harder and to succeed at more difficult challenges.
That's why it's worth considering making things we already love more gamelike. It can make us better at them, and help us set our sights higher.
As we struggle to find the right balance between virtual and real-life adventures, a game like Foursquare can nudge us in the right direction and help us put our best efforts where we can reap the most satisfying rewards: back in the real world, with the help of a good game.
There are no good uncessary obstacles without arbitary restrictions.
Chore are, again by definition, routine——but they don't have to be. Doing them in a game format makes it possible to experience fiero doing something as mumdane as cleaning up a mess, simple by making it more challenging, or by requiring us to be more creative about how we do it.
Even if household interest in the game dies down after a few weeks or months, a major feat has been accomplished: players have had a rather memorable, positive experience of doing chores together. And that should change the way they think about and approach chores for some time.
It turns routine housework into a collective adventure, by adding unnecessary obstacles and implementing more motivating feedback systems. And it's the perfect example of our next reality fix。
Compared with games, reality is hard to get into. Games motivate us to participate more fully in whatever we're doing.
The emontional and social rewards we really crave require active, enthusiastic, self-motivated participation. And helping players participate more fully in the moment, instead of trying to escape it or just get through it, is the signature hallmark of alternate reality project.
Alternate realities are the antiescapist game.
The best ARGs are the ones that, like the best traditional computer and video games, help us create more satisfying work for ourselves, cultivate better hopes of success, strengthen our social bonds and activate our social networks, and give us the chance to contribute to something bigger than ourselves.
Leveling up is a much more egalitarain model of success than a traditional letter grading system based on the bell curve. Everyone can level up, as long as they keep working hard. Leveling up can replace or complement traditional letter grades that students have just one shot at earning.
The first thing to do is to know your users. What motivates them? What is meaningful to them? What keeps them from following throught on their intentions? What kinds of games do they like? What kind of community to they prefer? Without user research to figure these things out，you will miss your target audience.
The easiest, best, and most hands-on way is to start playing board games and then tinker with them and discuss how different rules create different dynamics and experiences.
The core of game design is to build a functional prototype(paper is fine) of your rule system as early as possible to test whether it is any fun, tweak it based on the test results, test it again, etc., to ietrate your way toward something that is fun and engaging.
The life boold of game design is testing.. Why are we playing games? Because it's fun. You cannot calculate this. You cannot test this out in an abstract manner. You have to play it.
The only way to ensure it shines is to prototype, playtest, and iterate as early and often as possible.
Be a good UX desginers.
Mark Twain rightly observed that autonomy is what makes the difference between work and play: We usually experience as work what we are forced to do, whereas to experience something as play, we must feel that we have chosen to do it voluntarily.
The danger in giving out rewards for activities. Dozens of pyschological studies have consistently shown that giving expected extrinsic rewards for an acitivity reduces the intrinsic motivation of people to do it.
The first reason is that people feel controlled by the person giving the rewards, reducing their sense of autonomy.
Giving a reward for an acitivity sends a strong social signal that you don't consider the activity worth doing for its own sake.If you pay people to become facebook friends of your app or to retweet a link to your app for the change of entering a sweepstak, that essentially says: our app is so bad, we have to reward people to say they like it. They would never do it spontaneously.
Not to attach real-world consequences to in-game activities: no quarterly evaluations, salary bonuses, sweepstakes, etc.
Ensure that you and your employees share the same goals and the intentions behind those goals, so that they feel they pursue their own goals. Then make them even more autonomous by leaving it up to them how they reach those goals.
Ensure that system feedback feels informational rather than controlling, supporting users in reaching their goals.
Make rewards unexpected - like easter eggs in video games. When you don't expect a reward, you don't feel you did something because of the reward - hence it doesn't feel controlling or devaluing.
It depends on whether the team behind the site understood their users, spoke with them, designed and redesigned over and over to get all the little details right and ensure that what they build actually speaks to the need of those users.
Game elements are like an amplifier: There has to be a genuine sound first - a value, an interets, a motivation - for the amplifier to do any good.
What we have learned from our users is that any game aspect has to be, at least for finance, more oriented toward some specific thing that you are working toward: I want to buy a house or a car, take a vacation, get out of debt... Otherwise you have a system of points with no levels or no end game.
Fun is just another word for learning. (under optimal conditions)
Fun is learning - under optimal conditons. That's what makes good games fun and marks the core of game design: crafting precisely such optimal conditions.
Fun from games arises out of mastery. It arises out of comprehension. It is the act of solving puzzles that makes games fun. With games, learning is the drug.
Games pose challenges to us:patterns to recognize, rules to grock, puzzles to solve, hand-eye corrdinations to grsp. Fun is the good feeling we get when we finally succeed in mastering the challenge, when we experience that we learned to competenly control a part of our environment.
Playing video games is intrinsically motivating, not extrinsically rewarded. And if you misunderstand this crucial motivational psychology of games, you are likely to build some version of Progress Wars that quickly loses its appeal.
Games do this by creating interesting challenges that provide said experiences of mastery.
Games: a voluntary attempt to overcome unnecessary obstacles.
THey ensure that a structured flow of nested goals pulls you through, from the long-term goal, to medium-term and short-term goals. Whenever you are in and whenever you return to a good game, there will always be one next goal that is just within reach.
Failures that lead the player to examine his performance and explore new, alternative strategies, but also make eventual success so much sweeter and more satisfying.
Conditions for Flow
· Clear goals
· Balance between perceived chanllenge and perceived skills
· Clear and immediate feedback.
GAME: a structured experience with rules and goals that's fun to play.
Balance of analytical & creative
Prototyping and playtesting
Gamification Design Framework
1. DEFINE business objectives
2. DELINEATE target behaviours
3. DESCRIBEyour players
4. DEVISE activity loops
5. DON't forget the fun!
6. DEPLOY the appropriate tools
SAPS (Extrinsic Rewards)
External Regulation (some one tells to do something..)
introjection(I'm not really willing to do it but it may be good for my future.)
identification (relate to my personal goals but still don't want to do)
intergration(I want to do and it's good for me. However I dislike to do something)
Fastest way to improve someone's everyday quality of life is to "bestow on a person a speicific goal, something to do and to look forward."
We like productivie work because it makes us feel that we are developing our personal resources.
The right kind of failure is a reward.
In many cases, the hope of success is more exciting than success itself.
Success is pleasurable, but it leaves us at a loss for something interesting to do. If we fail, and if we can try again, then we still have a mission.
Fun from games arises out of mastery. It arises out of comprehension.. With games, learning is the drug.
statement like "I am in control of my own fate."
We're in an optimistic state of mind, we pay more attention , think more clearly, and learn faster.
Games are perfect environments for practicing flexile optimism. And we do need help practicing more flexible optimism in everyday life.
Four major efforts for intrinsic efforts
Carve satisfying work
Carve the experience, or at least the hope, of being successful
Carve social connection
Carve meaning, or the chance to be a part of something larger than ourselves.
The principle of Gamification is to increase engagement.
The purpose of the world is to be the best version of yourself you can be.
The opposite of play isn't work. It's depression.
As for the future, your task is not to see it, but to enable it.
Playing a game is the voluntary attempt to overcome uncessary obstacles.
In high-feedback games, the state of being intensely engaged may ultimately be more pleasurable than even the satisfaction of winning.
A game is an opportunity to focus our energy, with relentless optimism, at something we're good at and enjoy. In other words, gameplay is the dirent emotional opposite of depression.
We're much happier enlivening time rather than killing time.
Flow: the satisfying, exhilarating feeling of creative accomplishment and heightened functioning.
All challenging endeavors with a clear goal, well-established rules for action, and the potential for increased difficulity and improvement over time. More importantly, flow activiteis were done for pure enjoyment rather than for status, money, or obligation.
Seeking out external rewards is a sure path to sabotaging our own happiness.
Intense engagement is the most pleasurable, satisfying, and meaninful emitional state we can experience.
When the source of positive emition is yourself, it can continue to yiled pleasure and make you happy. When the source of positive emition is yourself, it is renewable.
We don't need to wait for life to trigger these chemicals and sensations for us. We can trigger them ourselves through scientifically measurable autotelic activities.
《Web Reputation Systems》
《Game design Workshop》
《Glued to Games》
Think about game design knowledge.
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